FIWARE Core Context Management NGSI v1

Description: This tutorial is an introduction to FIWARE Cygnus - a generic enabler which is used to persist context data into third-party databases creating a historical view of the context. The tutorial activates the IoT sensors connected in the previous tutorial and persists measurements from those sensors into a database for further analysis.

The tutorial uses cUrl commands throughout, but is also available as Postman documentation

Note There are breaking changes to the setup of Cygnus between 1.x and 2.x. This tutorial is describing the use of Cygnus 1.9.0

Run in Postman


Data Persistence

"History will be kind to me for I intend to write it."

— Winston Churchill

Previous tutorials have introduced a set of IoT Sensors (providing measurements of the state of the real world), and two FIWARE Components - the Orion Context Broker and an IoT Agent. This tutorial will introduce a new data persistence component - FIWARE Cygnus.

The system so far has been built up to handle the current context, in other words it holds the data entities defining the state of the real-world objects at a given moment in time.

From this definition you can see - context is only interested in the current state of the system It is not the responsibility of any of the existing components to report on the historical state of the system, the context is based on the last measurement each sensor has sent to the context broker.

In order to do this, we will need to extend the existing architecture to persist changes of state into a database whenever the context is updated.

Persisting historical context data is useful for big data analysis - it can be used to discover trends, or data can be sampled and aggregated to remove the influence of outlying data measurements. However within each Smart Solution, the significance of each entity type will differ and entities and attributes may need to be sampled at different rates.

Since the business requirements for using context data differ from application to application, there is no one standard use case for historical data persistence - each situation is unique - it is not the case that one size fits all. Therefore rather than overloading the context broker with the job of historical context data persistence, this role has been separated out into a separate, highly configurable component - Cygnus.

As you would expect, Cygnus, as part of an Open Source platform, is technology agnostic regarding the database to be used for data persistence. The database you choose to use will depend upon your own business needs.

However there is a cost to offering this flexibility - each part of the system must be separately configured and notifications must be set up to only pass the minimal data required as necessary.

Device Monitor

For the purpose of this tutorial, a series of dummy IoT devices have been created, which will be attached to the context broker. Details of the architecture and protocol used can be found in the IoT Sensors tutorial. The state of each device can be seen on the UltraLight device monitor web page found at: http://localhost:3000/device/monitor

FIWARE Monitor


Architecture

This application builds on the components and dummy IoT devices created in previous tutorials. It will make use of three FIWARE components - the Orion Context Broker, the IoT Agent for Ultralight 2.0 and introduce the Cygnus Generic Enabler for persisting context data to a database. Additional databases are now involved - both the Orion Context Broker and the IoT Agent rely on MongoDB technology to keep persistence of the information they hold, and we will be persisting our historical context data another database - either MySQL , PostgreSQL or MongoDB database.

Therefore the overall architecture will consist of the following elements:

  • Three FIWARE Generic Enablers:
    • The FIWARE Orion Context Broker which will receive requests using NGSI
    • The FIWARE IoT Agent for Ultralight 2.0 which will receive northbound measurements from the dummy IoT devices in Ultralight 2.0 format and convert them to NGSI requests for the context broker to alter the state of the context entities
    • FIWARE Cygnus which will subscribe to context changes and persist them into a database (MySQL , PostgreSQL or MongoDB)
  • One, two or three of the following Databases:
    • The underlying MongoDB database :
      • Used by the Orion Context Broker to hold context data information such as data entities, subscriptions and registrations
      • Used by the IoT Agent to hold device information such as device URLs and Keys
      • Potentially used as a data sink to hold historical context data.
    • An additional PostgreSQL database :
      • Potentially used as a data sink to hold historical context data.
    • An additional MySQL database :
      • Potentially used as a data sink to hold historical context data.
  • Three Context Providers:
    • The Stock Management Frontend is not used in this tutorial. It does the following:
      • Display store information and allow users to interact with the dummy IoT devices
      • Show which products can be bought at each store
      • Allow users to "buy" products and reduce the stock count.
    • A webserver acting as set of dummy IoT devices using the Ultralight 2.0 protocol running over HTTP.
    • The Context Provider NGSI proxy is not used in this tutorial. It does the following:
      • receive requests using NGSI
      • makes requests to publicly available data sources using their own APIs in a proprietary format
      • returns context data back to the Orion Context Broker in NGSI format.

Since all interactions between the elements are initiated by HTTP requests, the entities can be containerized and run from exposed ports.

The specific architecture of each section of the tutorial is discussed below.

Start Up

Before you start you should ensure that you have obtained or built the necessary Docker images locally. Please clone the repository and create the necessary images by running the commands as shown:

git clone git@github.com:Fiware/tutorials.Historic-Context.git
cd tutorials.Historic-Context

./services create

Thereafter, all services can be initialized from the command-line by running the services Bash script provided within the repository:

./services <command>

Where <command> will vary depending upon the databases we wish to activate. This command will also import seed data from the previous tutorials and provision the dummy IoT sensors on startup.

Note: If you want to clean up and start over again you can do so with the following command:

./services stop


MongoDB - Persisting Context Data into a Database

Persisting historic context data using MongoDB technology is relatively simple to configure since we are already using a MongoDB instance to hold data related to the Orion Context Broker and the IoT Agent. The MongoDB instance is listening on the standard 27017 port and the overall architecture can be seen below:

MongoDB - Database Server Configuration

mongo-db:
    image: mongo:3.6
    hostname: mongo-db
    container_name: db-mongo
    ports:
        - "27017:27017"
    networks:
        - default
    command: --bind_ip_all --smallfiles

MongoDB - Cygnus Configuration

cygnus:
    image: fiware/cygnus-ngsi:latest
    hostname: cygnus
    container_name: fiware-cygnus
    depends_on:
        - mongo-db
    networks:
        - default
    expose:
        - "5080"
    ports:
        - "5050:5050"
        - "5080:5080"
    environment:
        - "CYGNUS_MONGO_HOSTS=mongo-db:27017"
        - "CYGNUS_LOG_LEVEL=DEBUG"
        - "CYGNUS_SERVICE_PORT=5050"
        - "CYGNUS_API_PORT=5080"

The cygnus container is listening on two ports:

  • The Subscription Port for Cygnus - 5050 is where the service will be listening for notifications from the Orion context broker
  • The Management Port for Cygnus - 5080 is exposed purely for tutorial access - so that cUrl or Postman can make provisioning commands without being part of the same network.

The cygnus container is driven by environment variables as shown:

Key Value Description
CYGNUS_MONGO_HOSTS mongo-db:27017 Comma separated list of MongoDB servers which Cygnus will contact to persist historical context data
CYGNUS_LOG_LEVEL DEBUG The logging level for Cygnus
CYGNUS_SERVICE_PORT 5050 Notification Port that Cygnus listens when subscribing to context data changes
CYGNUS_API_PORT 5080 Port that Cygnus listens on for operational reasons

MongoDB - Start up

To start the system with a MongoDB database only, run the following command:

./services mongodb

Checking the Cygnus Service Health

Once Cygnus is running, you can check the status by making an HTTP request to the exposed CYGNUS_API_PORT port. If the response is blank, this is usually because Cygnus is not running or is listening on another port.

1 Request:

curl -X GET \
  'http://localhost:5080/v1/version'

Response:

The response will look similar to the following:

{
    "success": "true",
    "version": "1.8.0_SNAPSHOT.ed50706880829e97fd4cf926df434f1ef4fac147"
}

Troubleshooting: What if the response is blank ?

  • To check that a docker container is running try

docker ps

You should see several containers running. If cygnus is not running, you can restart the containers as necessary.

Generating Context Data

For the purpose of this tutorial, we must be monitoring a system where the context is periodically being updated. The dummy IoT Sensors can be used to do this. Open the device monitor page at http://localhost:3000/device/monitor and unlock a Smart Door and switch on a Smart Lamp. This can be done by selecting an appropriate the command from the drop down list and pressing the send button. The stream of measurements coming from the devices can then be seen on the same page:

Subscribing to Context Changes

Once a dynamic context system is up and running, we need to inform Cygnus of changes in context.

This is done by making a POST request to the /v2/subscription endpoint of the Orion Context Broker.

  • The fiware-service and fiware-servicepath headers are used to filter the subscription to only listen to measurements from the attached IoT Sensors, since they had been provisioned using these settings
  • The idPattern in the request body ensures that Cygnus will be informed of all context data changes.
  • The notification url must match the configured CYGNUS_API_PORT
  • The attrsFormat=legacy is required since Cygnus currently only accepts notifications in the older NGSI v1 format.
  • The throttling value defines the rate that changes are sampled.

2 Request:

curl -iX POST \
  'http://localhost:1026/v2/subscriptions' \
  -H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
  -H 'fiware-service: openiot' \
  -H 'fiware-servicepath: /' \
  -d '{
  "description": "Notify Cygnus of all context changes",
  "subject": {
    "entities": [
      {
        "idPattern": ".*"
      }
    ]
  },
  "notification": {
    "http": {
      "url": "http://cygnus:5050/notify"
    },
    "attrsFormat": "legacy"
  },
  "throttling": 5
}'

As you can see, the database used to persist context data has no impact on the details of the subscription. It is the same for each database. The response will be 201 - Created

Note: if you see errors of the following form within the Cygnus log:

Received bad request from client. cygnus | org.apache.flume.source.http.HTTPBadRequestException: 'fiware-servicepath' header value does not match the number of notified context responses

This is usually because the "attrsFormat": "legacy" flag has been omitted.

MongoDB - Reading Data from a database

To read MongoDB data from the command-line, we will need access to the mongo tool run an interactive instance of the mongo image as shown to obtain a command-line prompt:

docker run -it --network fiware_default  --entrypoint /bin/bash mongo

You can then log into to the running mongo-db database by using the command line as shown:

mongo --host mongo-db

Show Available Databases on the MongoDB server

To show the list of available databases, run the statement as shown:

Query:

show dbs

Result:

admin          0.000GB
iotagentul     0.000GB
local          0.000GB
orion          0.000GB
orion-openiot  0.000GB
sth_openiot    0.000GB

The result include two databases admin and local which are set up by default by MongoDB, along with four databases created by the FIWARE platform. The Orion Context Broker has created two separate database instance for each fiware-service

  • The Store entities were created without defining a fiware-service and therefore are held within the orion database, whereas the IoT device entities were created using the openiot fiware-service header and are held separately. The IoT Agent was initialized to hold the IoT sensor data in a separate MongoDB database called iotagentul.

As a result of the subscription of Cygnus to Orion Context Broker, a new database has been created called sth_openiot. The default value for a Mongo DB database holding historic context consists of the sth_ prefix followed by the fiware-service header - therefore sth_openiot holds the historic context of the IoT devices.

Read Historical Context from the server

Query:

use sth_openiot
show collections

Result:

switched to db sth_openiot

sth_/_Door:001_Door
sth_/_Door:001_Door.aggr
sth_/_Lamp:001_Lamp
sth_/_Lamp:001_Lamp.aggr
sth_/_Motion:001_Motion
sth_/_Motion:001_Motion.aggr

Looking within the sth_openiot you will see that a series of tables have been created. The names of each table consist of the sth_ prefix followed by the fiware-servicepath header followed by the entity ID. Two table are created for each entity - the .aggr table holds some aggregated data which will be accessed in a later tutorial. The raw data can be seen in the tables without the .aggr suffix.

The historical data can be seen by looking at the data within each table, by default each row will contain the sampled value of a single attribute.

Query:

db["sth_/_Door:001_Door"].find().limit(10)

Result:

{ "_id" : ObjectId("5b1fa48630c49e0012f7635d"), "recvTime" : ISODate("2018-06-12T10:46:30.897Z"), "attrName" : "TimeInstant", "attrType" : "ISO8601", "attrValue" : "2018-06-12T10:46:30.836Z" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("5b1fa48630c49e0012f7635e"), "recvTime" : ISODate("2018-06-12T10:46:30.897Z"), "attrName" : "close_status", "attrType" : "commandStatus", "attrValue" : "UNKNOWN" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("5b1fa48630c49e0012f7635f"), "recvTime" : ISODate("2018-06-12T10:46:30.897Z"), "attrName" : "lock_status", "attrType" : "commandStatus", "attrValue" : "UNKNOWN" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("5b1fa48630c49e0012f76360"), "recvTime" : ISODate("2018-06-12T10:46:30.897Z"), "attrName" : "open_status", "attrType" : "commandStatus", "attrValue" : "UNKNOWN" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("5b1fa48630c49e0012f76361"), "recvTime" : ISODate("2018-06-12T10:46:30.836Z"), "attrName" : "refStore", "attrType" : "Relationship", "attrValue" : "Store:001" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("5b1fa48630c49e0012f76362"), "recvTime" : ISODate("2018-06-12T10:46:30.836Z"), "attrName" : "state", "attrType" : "Text", "attrValue" : "CLOSED" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("5b1fa48630c49e0012f76363"), "recvTime" : ISODate("2018-06-12T10:45:26.368Z"), "attrName" : "unlock_info", "attrType" : "commandResult", "attrValue" : " unlock OK" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("5b1fa48630c49e0012f76364"), "recvTime" : ISODate("2018-06-12T10:45:26.368Z"), "attrName" : "unlock_status", "attrType" : "commandStatus", "attrValue" : "OK" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("5b1fa4c030c49e0012f76385"), "recvTime" : ISODate("2018-06-12T10:47:28.081Z"), "attrName" : "TimeInstant", "attrType" : "ISO8601", "attrValue" : "2018-06-12T10:47:28.038Z" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("5b1fa4c030c49e0012f76386"), "recvTime" : ISODate("2018-06-12T10:47:28.081Z"), "attrName" : "close_status", "attrType" : "commandStatus", "attrValue" : "UNKNOWN" }

The usual MongoDB query syntax can be used to filter appropriate fields and values. For example to read the rate at which the Motion Sensor with the id=Motion:001_Motion is accumulating, you would make a query as follows:

Query:

db["sth_/_Motion:001_Motion"].find({attrName: "count"},{_id: 0, attrType: 0, attrName: 0 } ).limit(10)

Result:

{ "recvTime" : ISODate("2018-06-12T10:46:18.756Z"), "attrValue" : "8" }
{ "recvTime" : ISODate("2018-06-12T10:46:36.881Z"), "attrValue" : "10" }
{ "recvTime" : ISODate("2018-06-12T10:46:42.947Z"), "attrValue" : "11" }
{ "recvTime" : ISODate("2018-06-12T10:46:54.893Z"), "attrValue" : "13" }
{ "recvTime" : ISODate("2018-06-12T10:47:00.929Z"), "attrValue" : "15" }
{ "recvTime" : ISODate("2018-06-12T10:47:06.954Z"), "attrValue" : "17" }
{ "recvTime" : ISODate("2018-06-12T10:47:15.983Z"), "attrValue" : "19" }
{ "recvTime" : ISODate("2018-06-12T10:47:49.090Z"), "attrValue" : "23" }
{ "recvTime" : ISODate("2018-06-12T10:47:58.112Z"), "attrValue" : "25" }
{ "recvTime" : ISODate("2018-06-12T10:48:28.218Z"), "attrValue" : "29" }

To leave the MongoDB client and leave interactive mode, run the following:

exit
exit

PostgreSQL - Persisting Context Data into a Database

To persist historic context data into an alternative database such as PostgreSQL, we will need an additional container which hosts the PostgreSQL server - the default Docker image for this data can be used. The PostgreSQL instance is listening on the standard 5432 port and the overall architecture can be seen below:

We now have a system with two databases, since the MongoDB container is still required to hold data related to the Orion Context Broker and the IoT Agent.

PostgreSQL - Database Server Configuration

postgres-db:
    image: postgres:latest
    hostname: postgres-db
    container_name: db-postgres
    expose:
        - "5432"
    ports:
        - "5432:5432"
    networks:
        - default
    environment:
        - "POSTGRES_PASSWORD=password"
        - "POSTGRES_USER=postgres"
        - "POSTGRES_DB=postgres"

The postgres-db container is listening on a single port:

  • Port 5432 is the default port for a PostgreSQL server. It has been exposed so you can also run the pgAdmin4 tool to display database data if you wish

The postgres-db container is driven by environment variables as shown:

Key Value. Description
POSTGRES_PASSWORD password Password for the PostgreSQL database user
POSTGRES_USER postgres Username for the PostgreSQL database user
POSTGRES_DB postgres The name of the PostgreSQL database

Note: Passing the Username and Password in plain text environment variables like this is a security risk. Whereas this is acceptable practice in a tutorial, for a production environment, you can avoid this risk by applying Docker Secrets

PostgreSQL - Cygnus Configuration

cygnus:
    image: fiware/cygnus-ngsi:latest
    hostname: cygnus
    container_name: fiware-cygnus
    networks:
        - default
    depends_on:
        - postgres-db
    expose:
        - "5080"
    ports:
        - "5050:5050"
        - "5080:5080"
    environment:
        - "CYGNUS_POSTGRESQL_HOST=postgres-db"
        - "CYGNUS_POSTGRESQL_PORT=5432"
        - "CYGNUS_POSTGRESQL_USER=postgres"
        - "CYGNUS_POSTGRESQL_PASS=password"
        - "CYGNUS_LOG_LEVEL=DEBUG"
        - "CYGNUS_SERVICE_PORT=5050"
        - "CYGNUS_API_PORT=5080"
        - "CYGNUS_POSTGRESQL_ENABLE_CACHE=true"

The cygnus container is listening on two ports:

  • The Subscription Port for Cygnus - 5050 is where the service will be listening for notifications from the Orion context broker
  • The Management Port for Cygnus - 5080 is exposed purely for tutorial access - so that cUrl or Postman can make provisioning commands without being part of the same network.

The cygnus container is driven by environment variables as shown:

Key Value Description
CYGNUS_POSTGRESQL_HOST postgres-db Hostname of the PostgreSQL server used to persist historical context data
CYGNUS_POSTGRESQL_PORT 5432 Port that the PostgreSQL server uses to listen to commands
CYGNUS_POSTGRESQL_USER postgres Username for the PostgreSQL database user
CYGNUS_POSTGRESQL_PASS password Password for the PostgreSQL database user
CYGNUS_LOG_LEVEL DEBUG The logging level for Cygnus
CYGNUS_SERVICE_PORT 5050 Notification Port that Cygnus listens when subscribing to context data changes
CYGNUS_API_PORT 5080 Port that Cygnus listens on for operational reasons
CYGNUS_POSTGRESQL_ENABLE_CACHE true Switch to enable caching within the PostgreSQL configuration

Note: Passing the Username and Password in plain text environment variables like this is a security risk. Whereas this is acceptable practice in a tutorial, for a production environment, CYGNUS_POSTGRESQL_USER and CYGNUS_POSTGRESQL_PASS should be injected using Docker Secrets

PostgreSQL - Start up

To start the system with a PostgreSQL database run the following command:

./services postgres

Checking the Cygnus Service Health

Once Cygnus is running, you can check the status by making an HTTP request to the exposed CYGNUS_API_PORT port. If the response is blank, this is usually because Cygnus is not running or is listening on another port.

3 Request:

curl -X GET \
  'http://localhost:5080/v1/version'

Response:

The response will look similar to the following:

{
    "success": "true",
    "version": "1.8.0_SNAPSHOT.ed50706880829e97fd4cf926df434f1ef4fac147"
}

Troubleshooting: What if the response is blank ?

  • To check that a docker container is running try

docker ps

You should see several containers running. If cygnus is not running, you can restart the containers as necessary.

Generating Context Data

For the purpose of this tutorial, we must be monitoring a system where the context is periodically being updated. The dummy IoT Sensors can be used to do this. Open the device monitor page at http://localhost:3000/device/monitor and unlock a Smart Door and switch on a Smart Lamp. This can be done by selecting an appropriate the command from the drop down list and pressing the send button. The stream of measurements coming from the devices can then be seen on the same page:

Subscribing to Context Changes

Once a dynamic context system is up and running, we need to inform Cygnus of changes in context.

This is done by making a POST request to the /v2/subscription endpoint of the Orion Context Broker.

  • The fiware-service and fiware-servicepath headers are used to filter the subscription to only listen to measurements from the attached IoT Sensors, since they had been provisioned using these settings
  • The idPattern in the request body ensures that Cygnus will be informed of all context data changes.
  • The notification url must match the configured CYGNUS_API_PORT
  • The attrsFormat=legacy is required since Cygnus currently only accepts notifications in the older NGSI v1 format.
  • The throttling value defines the rate that changes are sampled.

4 Request:

curl -iX POST \
  'http://localhost:1026/v2/subscriptions' \
  -H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
  -H 'fiware-service: openiot' \
  -H 'fiware-servicepath: /' \
  -d '{
  "description": "Notify Cygnus of all context changes",
  "subject": {
    "entities": [
      {
        "idPattern": ".*"
      }
    ]
  },
  "notification": {
    "http": {
      "url": "http://cygnus:5050/notify"
    },
    "attrsFormat": "legacy"
  },
  "throttling": 5
}'

As you can see, the database used to persist context data has no impact on the details of the subscription. It is the same for each database. The response will be 201 - Created

PostgreSQL - Reading Data from a database

To read PostgreSQL data from the command-line, we will need access to the postgres client, to do this, run an interactive instance of the postgresql-client image supplying the connection string as shown to obtain a command-line prompt:

docker run -it --rm  --network fiware_default jbergknoff/postgresql-client \
   postgresql://postgres:password@postgres-db:5432/postgres

Show Available Databases on the PostgreSQL server

To show the list of available databases, run the statement as shown:

Query:

\list

Result:

   Name    |  Owner   | Encoding |  Collate   |   Ctype    |   Access privileges
-----------+----------+----------+------------+------------+-----------------------
 postgres  | postgres | UTF8     | en_US.utf8 | en_US.utf8 |
 template0 | postgres | UTF8     | en_US.utf8 | en_US.utf8 | =c/postgres          +
           |          |          |            |            | postgres=CTc/postgres
 template1 | postgres | UTF8     | en_US.utf8 | en_US.utf8 | =c/postgres          +
           |          |          |            |            | postgres=CTc/postgres
(3 rows)

The result include two template databases template0 and template1 as well as the postgres database setup when the docker container was started.

To show the list of available schemas, run the statement as shown:

Query:

\dn

Result:

  List of schemas
  Name   |  Owner
---------+----------
 openiot | postgres
 public  | postgres
(2 rows)

As a result of the subscription of Cygnus to Orion Context Broker, a new schema has been created called openiot. The name of the schema matches the fiware-service header - therefore openiot holds the historic context of the IoT devices.

Read Historical Context from the PostgreSQL server

Once running a docker container within the network, it is possible to obtain information about the running database.

Query:

SELECT table_schema,table_name
FROM information_schema.tables
WHERE table_schema ='openiot'
ORDER BY table_schema,table_name;

Result:

 table_schema |    table_name
--------------+-------------------
 openiot      | door_001_door
 openiot      | lamp_001_lamp
 openiot      | motion_001_motion
(3 rows)

The table_schema matches the fiware-service header supplied with the context data:

To read the data within a table, run a select statement as shown:

Query:

SELECT * FROM openiot.motion_001_motion limit 10;

Result:

  recvtimets   |         recvtime         | fiwareservicepath |  entityid  | entitytype |  attrname   |   attrtype   |        attrvalue         |                                    attrmd
---------------+--------------------------+-------------------+------------+------------+-------------+--------------+--------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 1528803005491 | 2018-06-12T11:30:05.491Z | /                 | Motion:001 | Motion     | TimeInstant | ISO8601      | 2018-06-12T11:30:05.423Z | []
 1528803005491 | 2018-06-12T11:30:05.491Z | /                 | Motion:001 | Motion     | count       | Integer      | 7                        | [{"name":"TimeInstant","type":"ISO8601","value":"2018-06-12T11:30:05.423Z"}]
 1528803005491 | 2018-06-12T11:30:05.491Z | /                 | Motion:001 | Motion     | refStore    | Relationship | Store:001                | [{"name":"TimeInstant","type":"ISO8601","value":"2018-06-12T11:30:05.423Z"}]
 1528803035501 | 2018-06-12T11:30:35.501Z | /                 | Motion:001 | Motion     | TimeInstant | ISO8601      | 2018-06-12T11:30:35.480Z | []
 1528803035501 | 2018-06-12T11:30:35.501Z | /                 | Motion:001 | Motion     | count       | Integer      | 10                       | [{"name":"TimeInstant","type":"ISO8601","value":"2018-06-12T11:30:35.480Z"}]
 1528803035501 | 2018-06-12T11:30:35.501Z | /                 | Motion:001 | Motion     | refStore    | Relationship | Store:001                | [{"name":"TimeInstant","type":"ISO8601","value":"2018-06-12T11:30:35.480Z"}]
 1528803041563 | 2018-06-12T11:30:41.563Z | /                 | Motion:001 | Motion     | TimeInstant | ISO8601      | 2018-06-12T11:30:41.520Z | []
 1528803041563 | 2018-06-12T11:30:41.563Z | /                 | Motion:001 | Motion     | count       | Integer      | 12                       | [{"name":"TimeInstant","type":"ISO8601","value":"2018-06-12T11:30:41.520Z"}]
 1528803041563 | 2018-06-12T11:30:41.563Z | /                 | Motion:001 | Motion     | refStore    | Relationship | Store:001                | [{"name":"TimeInstant","type":"ISO8601","value":"2018-06-12T11:30:41.520Z"}]
 1528803047545 | 2018-06-12T11:30:47.545Z | /

The usual PostgreSQL query syntax can be used to filter appropriate fields and values. For example to read the rate at which the Motion Sensor with the id=Motion:001_Motion is accumulating, you would make a query as follows:

Query:

SELECT recvtime, attrvalue FROM openiot.motion_001_motion WHERE attrname ='count'  limit 10;

Result:

         recvtime         | attrvalue
--------------------------+-----------
 2018-06-12T11:30:05.491Z | 7
 2018-06-12T11:30:35.501Z | 10
 2018-06-12T11:30:41.563Z | 12
 2018-06-12T11:30:47.545Z | 13
 2018-06-12T11:31:02.617Z | 15
 2018-06-12T11:31:32.718Z | 20
 2018-06-12T11:31:38.733Z | 22
 2018-06-12T11:31:50.780Z | 24
 2018-06-12T11:31:56.825Z | 25
 2018-06-12T11:31:59.790Z | 26
(10 rows)

To leave the Postgres client and leave interactive mode, run the following:

\q

You will then return to the command-line.

MySQL - Persisting Context Data into a Database

Similarly, to persisting historic context data into MySQL, we will again need an additional container which hosts the MySQL server, once again the default Docker image for this data can be used. The MySQL instance is listening on the standard 3306 port and the overall architecture can be seen below:

Once again we have a system with two databases, since the MongoDB container is still required to hold data related to the Orion Context Broker and the IoT Agent.

MySQL - Database Server Configuration

mysql-db:
    restart: always
    image: mysql:5.7
    hostname: mysql-db
    container_name: db-mysql
    expose:
        - "3306"
    ports:
        - "3306:3306"
    networks:
        - default
    environment:
        - "MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=123"
        - "MYSQL_ROOT_HOST=%"

The mysql-db container is listening on a single port:

  • Port 3306 is the default port for a MySQL server. It has been exposed so you can also run other database tools to display data if you wish

The mysql-db container is driven by environment variables as shown:

Key Value. Description
MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD 123. specifies a password that is set for the MySQL root account.
MYSQL_ROOT_HOST postgres By default, MySQL creates the root'@'localhost account. This account can only be connected to from inside the container. Setting this environment variable allows root connections from other hosts

Note: Using the default root user and displaying the password in an environment variables like this is a security risk. Whereas this is acceptable practice in a tutorial, for a production environment, you can avoid this risk by setting up another user and applying Docker Secrets

MySQL - Cygnus Configuration

cygnus:
    image: fiware/cygnus-ngsi:latest
    hostname: cygnus
    container_name: fiware-cygnus
    networks:
        - default
    depends_on:
        - mysql-db
    expose:
        - "5080"
    ports:
        - "5050:5050"
        - "5080:5080"
    environment:
        - "CYGNUS_MYSQL_HOST=mysql-db"
        - "CYGNUS_MYSQL_PORT=3306"
        - "CYGNUS_MYSQL_USER=root"
        - "CYGNUS_MYSQL_PASS=123"
        - "CYGNUS_LOG_LEVEL=DEBUG"
        - "CYGNUS_SERVICE_PORT=5050"
        - "CYGNUS_API_PORT=5080"

Note: Passing the Username and Password in plain text environment variables like this is a security risk. Whereas this is acceptable practice in a tutorial, for a production environment, CYGNUS_MYSQL_USER and CYGNUS_MYSQL_PASS should be injected using Docker Secrets

The cygnus container is listening on two ports:

  • The Subscription Port for Cygnus - 5050 is where the service will be listening for notifications from the Orion context broker
  • The Management Port for Cygnus - 5080 is exposed purely for tutorial access - so that cUrl or Postman can make provisioning commands without being part of the same network.

The cygnus container is driven by environment variables as shown:

Key Value Description
CYGNUS_MYSQL_HOST mysql-db Hostname of the MySQL server used to persist historical context data
CYGNUS_MYSQL_PORT 3306 Port that the MySQL server uses to listen to commands
CYGNUS_MYSQL_USER root Username for the MySQL database user
CYGNUS_MYSQL_PASS 123 Password for the MySQL database user
CYGNUS_LOG_LEVEL DEBUG The logging level for Cygnus
CYGNUS_SERVICE_PORT 5050 Notification Port that Cygnus listens when subscribing to context data changes
CYGNUS_API_PORT 5080 Port that Cygnus listens on for operational reasons

MySQL - Start up

To start the system with a MySQL database run the following command:

./services mysql

Checking the Cygnus Service Health

Once Cygnus is running, you can check the status by making an HTTP request to the exposed CYGNUS_API_PORT port. If the response is blank, this is usually because Cygnus is not running or is listening on another port.

5 Request:

curl -X GET \
  'http://localhost:5080/v1/version'

Response:

The response will look similar to the following:

{
    "success": "true",
    "version": "1.8.0_SNAPSHOT.ed50706880829e97fd4cf926df434f1ef4fac147"
}

Troubleshooting: What if the response is blank ?

  • To check that a docker container is running try

docker ps

You should see several containers running. If cygnus is not running, you can restart the containers as necessary.

Generating Context Data

For the purpose of this tutorial, we must be monitoring a system where the context is periodically being updated. The dummy IoT Sensors can be used to do this. Open the device monitor page at http://localhost:3000/device/monitor and unlock a Smart Door and switch on a Smart Lamp. This can be done by selecting an appropriate the command from the drop down list and pressing the send button. The stream of measurements coming from the devices can then be seen on the same page:

Subscribing to Context Changes

Once a dynamic context system is up and running, we need to inform Cygnus of changes in context.

This is done by making a POST request to the /v2/subscription endpoint of the Orion Context Broker.

  • The fiware-service and fiware-servicepath headers are used to filter the subscription to only listen to measurements from the attached IoT Sensors, since they had been provisioned using these settings
  • The idPattern in the request body ensures that Cygnus will be informed of all context data changes.
  • The notification url must match the configured CYGNUS_API_PORT
  • The attrsFormat=legacy is required since Cygnus currently only accepts notifications in the older NGSI v1 format.
  • The throttling value defines the rate that changes are sampled.

6 Request:

curl -iX POST \
  'http://localhost:1026/v2/subscriptions' \
  -H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
  -H 'fiware-service: openiot' \
  -H 'fiware-servicepath: /' \
  -d '{
  "description": "Notify Cygnus of all context changes",
  "subject": {
    "entities": [
      {
        "idPattern": ".*"
      }
    ]
  },
  "notification": {
    "http": {
      "url": "http://cygnus:5050/notify"
    },
    "attrsFormat": "legacy"
  },
  "throttling": 5
}'

As you can see, the database used to persist context data has no impact on the details of the subscription. It is the same for each database. The response will be 201 - Created

MySQL - Reading Data from a database

To read MySQL data from the command-line, we will need access to the mysql client, to do this, run an interactive instance of the mysql image supplying the connection string as shown to obtain a command-line prompt:

docker run -it --rm  --network fiware_default mysql mysql -h mysql-db -P 3306  -u root -p123

Show Available Databases on the MySQL server

To show the list of available databases, run the statement as shown:

Query:

SHOW DATABASES;

Result:

+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| openiot            |
| performance_schema |
| sys                |
+--------------------+
5 rows in set (0.00 sec)

To show the list of available schemas, run the statement as shown:

Query:

SHOW SCHEMAS;

Result:

+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| openiot            |
| performance_schema |
| sys                |
+--------------------+
5 rows in set (0.00 sec)

As a result of the subscription of Cygnus to Orion Context Broker, a new schema has been created called openiot. The name of the schema matches the fiware-service header - therefore openiot holds the historic context of the IoT devices.

Read Historical Context from the MySQL server

Once running a docker container within the network, it is possible to obtain information about the running database.

Query:

SHOW tables FROM openiot;

Result:

 table_schema |    table_name
--------------+-------------------
 openiot      | door_001_door
 openiot      | lamp_001_lamp
 openiot      | motion_001_motion
(3 rows)

The table_schema matches the fiware-service header supplied with the context data:

To read the data within a table, run a select statement as shown:

Query:

SELECT * FROM openiot.Motion_001_Motion limit 10;

Result:

+---------------+-------------------------+-------------------+------------+------------+-------------+--------------+--------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| recvTimeTs    | recvTime                | fiwareServicePath | entityId   | entityType | attrName    | attrType     | attrValue                | attrMd                                                                       |
+---------------+-------------------------+-------------------+------------+------------+-------------+--------------+--------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 1528804397955 | 2018-06-12T11:53:17.955 | /                 | Motion:001 | Motion     | TimeInstant | ISO8601      | 2018-06-12T11:53:17.923Z | []                                                                           |
| 1528804397955 | 2018-06-12T11:53:17.955 | /                 | Motion:001 | Motion     | count       | Integer      | 3                        | [{"name":"TimeInstant","type":"ISO8601","value":"2018-06-12T11:53:17.923Z"}] |
| 1528804397955 | 2018-06-12T11:53:17.955 | /                 | Motion:001 | Motion     | refStore    | Relationship | Store:001                | [{"name":"TimeInstant","type":"ISO8601","value":"2018-06-12T11:53:17.923Z"}] |
| 1528804403954 | 2018-06-12T11:53:23.954 | /                 | Motion:001 | Motion     | TimeInstant | ISO8601      | 2018-06-12T11:53:23.928Z | []                                                                           |
| 1528804403954 | 2018-06-12T11:53:23.954 | /                 | Motion:001 | Motion     | count       | Integer      | 5                        | [{"name":"TimeInstant","type":"ISO8601","value":"2018-06-12T11:53:23.928Z"}] |
| 1528804403954 | 2018-06-12T11:53:23.954 | /                 | Motion:001 | Motion     | refStore    | Relationship | Store:001                | [{"name":"TimeInstant","type":"ISO8601","value":"2018-06-12T11:53:23.928Z"}] |
| 1528804409970 | 2018-06-12T11:53:29.970 | /                 | Motion:001 | Motion     | TimeInstant | ISO8601      | 2018-06-12T11:53:29.948Z | []                                                                           |
| 1528804409970 | 2018-06-12T11:53:29.970 | /                 | Motion:001 | Motion     | count       | Integer      | 7                        | [{"name":"TimeInstant","type":"ISO8601","value":"2018-06-12T11:53:29.948Z"}] |
| 1528804409970 | 2018-06-12T11:53:29.970 | /                 | Motion:001 | Motion     | refStore    | Relationship | Store:001                | [{"name":"TimeInstant","type":"ISO8601","value":"2018-06-12T11:53:29.948Z"}] |
| 1528804446083 | 2018-06-12T11:54:06.83  | /                 | Motion:001 | Motion     | TimeInstant | ISO8601      | 2018-06-12T11:54:06.062Z | []                                                                           |
+---------------+-------------------------+-------------------+------------+------------+-------------+--------------+--------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The usual MySQL query syntax can be used to filter appropriate fields and values. For example to read the rate at which the Motion Sensor with the id=Motion:001_Motion is accumulating, you would make a query as follows:

Query:

SELECT recvtime, attrvalue FROM openiot.Motion_001_Motion WHERE attrname ='count' LIMIT 10;

Result:

+-------------------------+-----------+
| recvtime                | attrvalue |
+-------------------------+-----------+
| 2018-06-12T11:53:17.955 | 3         |
| 2018-06-12T11:53:23.954 | 5         |
| 2018-06-12T11:53:29.970 | 7         |
| 2018-06-12T11:54:06.83  | 12        |
| 2018-06-12T11:54:12.132 | 13        |
| 2018-06-12T11:54:24.177 | 14        |
| 2018-06-12T11:54:36.196 | 16        |
| 2018-06-12T11:54:42.195 | 18        |
| 2018-06-12T11:55:24.300 | 23        |
| 2018-06-12T11:55:30.350 | 25        |
+-------------------------+-----------+
10 rows in set (0.00 sec)

To leave the MySQL client and leave interactive mode, run the following:

\q

You will then return to the command-line.

Multi-Agent - Persisting Context Data into a multiple Databases

It is also possible to configure Cygnus to populate multiple databases simultaneously. We can combine the architecture from the three previous examples and configure cygnus to listen on multiple ports

We now have a system with three databases, PostgreSQL and MySQL for data persistence and MongoDB for both data persistence and holding data related to the Orion Context Broker and the IoT Agent.

Multi-Agent - Cygnus Configuration for Multiple Databases

cygnus:
    image: fiware/cygnus-ngsi:latest
    hostname: cygnus
    container_name: fiware-cygnus
    depends_on:
        - mongo-db
        - mysql-db
        - postgres-db
    networks:
        - default
    expose:
        - "5080"
        - "5081"
        - "5084"
    ports:
        - "5050:5050"
        - "5051:5051"
        - "5054:5054"
        - "5080:5080"
        - "5081:5081"
        - "5084:5084"
    environment:
        - "CYGNUS_MULTIAGENT=true"
        - "CYGNUS_POSTGRESQL_HOST=postgres-sb"
        - "CYGNUS_POSTGRESQL_PORT=5432"
        - "CYGNUS_POSTGRESQL_USER=postgres"
        - "CYGNUS_POSTGRESQL_PASS=password"
        - "CYGNUS_POSTGRESQL_ENABLE_CACHE=true"
        - "CYGNUS_MYSQL_HOST=mysql-db"
        - "CYGNUS_MYSQL_PORT=3306"
        - "CYGNUS_MYSQL_USER=root"
        - "CYGNUS_MYSQL_PASS=123"
        - "CYGNUS_LOG_LEVEL=DEBUG"

In multi-agent mode, the cygnus container is listening on multiple ports:

  • The service will be listening on ports 5050-5055 for notifications from the Orion context broker
  • The Management Ports 5080-5085 are exposed purely for tutorial access - so that cUrl or Postman can make provisioning commands without being part of the same network.

The default port mapping can be seen below:

sink port admin_port
mysql 5050 5080
mongo 5051 5081
ckan 5052 5082
hdfs 5053 5083
postgresql 5054 5084
cartodb 5055 5085

Since we are not persisting CKAN, HDFS or CartoDB data, there is no need to open those ports.

The cygnus container is driven by environment variables as shown:

Key Value Description
CYGNUS_MULTIAGENT true Whether to persist data into multiple databases.
CYGNUS_MONGO_HOSTS mongo-db:27017 Comma separated list of MongoDB servers which Cygnus will contact to persist historical context data
CYGNUS_POSTGRESQL_HOST postgres-db Hostname of the PostgreSQL server used to persist historical context data
CYGNUS_POSTGRESQL_PORT 5432 Port that the PostgreSQL server uses to listen to commands
CYGNUS_POSTGRESQL_USER postgres Username for the PostgreSQL database user
CYGNUS_POSTGRESQL_PASS password Password for the PostgreSQL database user
CYGNUS_MYSQL_HOST mysql-db Hostname of the MySQL server used to persist historical context data
CYGNUS_MYSQL_PORT 3306 Port that the MySQL server uses to listen to commands
CYGNUS_MYSQL_USER root Username for the MySQL database user
CYGNUS_MYSQL_PASS 123 Password for the MySQL database user
CYGNUS_LOG_LEVEL DEBUG The logging level for Cygnus

Multi-Agent - Start up

To start the system with multiple databases run the following command:

./services multiple

Checking the Cygnus Service Health

Once Cygnus is running, you can check the status by making an HTTP request to the exposed CYGNUS_API_PORT port. If the response is blank, this is usually because Cygnus is not running or is listening on another port.

7 Request:

curl -X GET \
  'http://localhost:5080/v1/version'

Response:

The response will look similar to the following:

{
    "success": "true",
    "version": "1.8.0_SNAPSHOT.ed50706880829e97fd4cf926df434f1ef4fac147"
}

Troubleshooting: What if the response is blank ?

  • To check that a docker container is running try

docker ps

You should see several containers running. If cygnus is not running, you can restart the containers as necessary.

Generating Context Data

For the purpose of this tutorial, we must be monitoring a system where the context is periodically being updated. The dummy IoT Sensors can be used to do this. Open the device monitor page at http://localhost:3000/device/monitor and unlock a Smart Door and switch on a Smart Lamp. This can be done by selecting an appropriate the command from the drop down list and pressing the send button. The stream of measurements coming from the devices can then be seen on the same page:

Subscribing to Context Changes

Once a dynamic context system is up and running, we need to inform Cygnus of changes in context.

This is done by making a POST request to the /v2/subscription endpoint of the Orion Context Broker.

  • The fiware-service and fiware-servicepath headers are used to filter the subscription to only listen to measurements from the attached IoT Sensors, since they had been provisioned using these settings
  • The idPattern in the request body ensures that Cygnus will be informed of all context data changes.
  • The notification url must match the configured CYGNUS_API_PORT
  • The attrsFormat=legacy is required since Cygnus currently only accepts notifications in the older NGSI v1 format.
  • The throttling value defines the rate that changes are sampled.

8 Request:

curl -iX POST \
  'http://localhost:1026/v2/subscriptions' \
  -H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
  -H 'fiware-service: openiot' \
  -H 'fiware-servicepath: /' \
  -d '{
  "description": "Notify Cygnus of all context changes",
  "subject": {
    "entities": [
      {
        "idPattern": ".*"
      }
    ]
  },
  "notification": {
    "http": {
      "url": "http://cygnus:5050/notify"
    },
    "attrsFormat": "legacy"
  },
  "throttling": 5
}'

As you can see, the database used to persist context data has no impact on the details of the subscription. It is the same for each database. The response will be 201 - Created

Multi-Agent - Reading Persisted Data

To read persisted data from the attached databases, please refer to the previous sections of this tutorial.